The Origins of Life

The Origins of Life, described hypothetical conditions which he felt would have been necessary for life to first come into existence on early Earth.
He thought the atmosphere was made largely of water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen (N2), methane (CH4), and ammonia (NH3). As the surface of Earth cooled again, torrential rains of this mixture formed the first seas, the “primordial soup.”

Lightening, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and volcanic action all were more intense than they are now.

  1. First, organic monomers (simple sugars, amino acids, fatty acids, and nucleotides) would have to be synthesized abiotically from inorganic substances like methane, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. This hypothesis was later tested by an experiment done by Stanley Miller as a grad student under Harold Urey in 1953. H2O, H2, CH4 and NH3 (at that time, thought to be components of the early atmosphere) were placed in a sterile, closed system. Heat was added to mimic the heat from volcanic activity, and electric sparks were provided to mimic lightening. After one week, the contents of this system had turned from clear to a murky, brown color. A chemical analysis showed a number of organic compounds were present, including several amino acids and simple sugars. Other researchers have since tried similar experiments with slight variations in the initial mix of chemicals added, and by now, all 20 amino acids, and a number of sugars, lipids, and nucleotides have been obtained in this manner. From this experiment, scientists generalize that if this can happen in a lab, it could have happened in a similar way on early Earth.
  2. The second step would be the formation of organic polymers and genetic material from the existing monomers (polysaccharides from simple sugars, proteins from amino acids, and RNA from nucleotides), possibly using hot sand or finely divided clay as a catalyst.
  3. Thirdly, it is thought that non-living aggregates of these polymers formed. These may have exhibited some properties characteristic of living organisms, but were NOT ALIVE, and did not have all the properties of living organisms. In a research laboratory, scientists have seen mixtures of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates form globules. If the proteins involved happen to be enzymes, these globules can even carry on "metabolic" activity, although they have no means to replicate themselves. Simultaneous to this, the genetic code would have to have arisen. Several widely-accepted theories as to how this may have happened include the possibly involvement of damp, zinc-containing clay as a catalyst to help the nucleotides polymerize first into RNA, and later into DNA.
  4. It is thought, then, that about 4.1 to 3.5 bya, the first prokaryotes, like bacteria, came into existance. It is difficult to pinpoint a date for this because bacteria don't have skeletons to leave behind. The first “fossils” (remains of colonies/secretions) of prokaryotes seem to be this age. These would have been very simple cells without many of the organelles present in modern cells, especially modern eukaryotes. Once the first cells, the first living organisms, the first prokaryotes came into existance, then the Theory of Evolution takes over to provide an explanation for how (not why) these primitive cells diversified into the five kingdoms of life which we recognize today. Initially, the energy needed for growth and development was supplied by glycolysis and fermentation. There was no free oxygen in the early atmosphere, and indeed, any organisms living back then would have probably been poisoned/killed by this highly-reactive chemical. Only later, as photosynthetic organisms released increasing amounts of this toxic waste into the atmosphere, did the process of cellular respiration evolve as a means of making use of this oxygen.

Initially, the energy needed for growth and development was supplied by glycolysis and fermentation. There was no free oxygen in the early atmosphere, and indeed, any organisms living back then would have probably been poisoned/killed by this highly-reactive chemical. Only later, as photosynthetic organisms released increasing amounts of this toxic waste into the atmosphere, did the process of cellular respiration evolve as a means of making use of this oxygen.

God: The Failed Hypothesis

Earth is one planet among ten or so revolving around an atypical star, our sun. On the distance scale of human experience, the solar system is immense. Earth is one hundred and fifty million kilometers from the sun. Pluto is some six billion kilometers away. The Oort cloud of comets, which marks the edge of the solar system, extends to thirty million kilometers from the sun. Although the space between the planets contains smaller asteroids, comets, and dust, the solar system consist mainly of empty space that seem to serve no purpose.

On this distance scale, the planets are tiny points. Yet they are huge on the human scale. The diameter of Earth is 12,742 kilometers. The largest planet, Jupiter, is 139,822 kilometers in diameter.

Beyond the solar system, we find even more space. The next closest star (after the sun), Proxima Centauri, is forty billion kilometers away. This is part of the triple-star system called Alpha Centauri. On this scale we should start using light-years as the unit of distance, where the light-year is the distance traveled by light in a year (9.45 trillion kilometers). The Alpha Centauri system is 4.22 light-years away. Note that multiple-star systems, which are very common, do not provide the kind of orbital stability we experience on Earth that is very important to our survival. It would seem that only single-star systems are likely to support life, another indication that life is not high on the universe's agenda.

Our sun and its planetary system are well away from the center of a galaxy containing an estimated two hundred to four hundred billion other stars. Call the "Milky Way," after the band of stars we see across the sky on a clear night, our visible galaxy is a flat, spiral disk one hundred thousand light years across, and about ten thousand light-years thick.

The Milky Way is but one of perhaps a hundred billion galaxies in the visible universe. We have two satellite galaxies, just outside the Milky Way, the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. The next galaxy nearest to us, Andromeda, is 2.44 million light-years away.

And, you might ask, how big is the universe? The farthest observed galaxy at this writing, Abell 1835 IR1916, is 13.2 billion light-years away, Since it has taken 13.2 billion years for its light to reach us, and the current estimate of the age of the universe is 13.7 billion years, we are seeing this galaxy as it was only five hundred million years after the start of the big bang. Because the universe has been expanding since the light left Abell, this galaxy is now about forty billion light-years away.

The farthest distance we can ever hope to see, what is called our horizon, is 13.7 billion light-years from Earth. Beyond that, light would take longer than the age of the universe to reach us. As vast as is the universe within our horizon, cosmology suggests that a far vaster one lies beyond. If the inflationary big bang model of the early universe is correct, then in a tiny time interval (something like 10-35 second, the universe expanded in size by a factor that is almost impossible to imagine. Here is one estimate of that factor: Write down the number 1 and follow it by a hundred zeroes. Then raise the number 10 to that power (10 to 10100). I have not been able to think of any analogy from common experience or science to help visualize that number. The size of the visible universe (1026 meters) is only 1061 times larger than the smaller distance that can be defined, the Planck distance (10-35 meter).

In short, if God created the universe as a special place for humanity, he seems to have wasted an awfully large amount of space where humanity will never make an appearance.

He wasted a lot of time, too. Instead of six days, he took nine billion years to make Earth, another billion years or so to make life, and then another four billion years to make humanity. Humans have walked on Earth for less than one-hundredth of one percent of Earth's history.

In fact, when you think of it, why would an infinitely powerful God even need six days? Wouldn't he have the ability to create everything in an instant? And, why would he have to rest when he was all done?

Paganism and Bible

I have spent a good deal of time researching the connection between paganism and the Bible and there is a massive amount of plagiarized themes that are in the bible from older Assryo-Babylonian religions as well as Greek and Egyptian.

This includes most of the major characters, Moses - Bacchus, Jesus- Mithras just as a few examples.

From a historical perspective Jesus also fails to meet the litmus test.

Jospheus Antiquities mention of Jesus was latter admitted by Christians to be a forged entry and Pliny the Younger is a more reputable entry however it does date the appearance of Jesus much later and coincides with Luke writing of the Synoptic Gospels.

If the real question of all these debates is “Does God Exist”? I always come back to “What evidence is there”? and the answer I always hear is you must have faith.

I have been taught that faith without fact is ignorance.

How much choice did God have in constructing the universe?

Einstein once asked the question:
"How much choice did God have in constructing the universe?"

Even if there is only one possible unified theory, it is just a set of rules and equations. What is it that breathes fire into the equations and makes a universe for them to describe?... Why does the universe go to all the bother of existing? Is the unified theory so compelling that it brings about its own existence? Or does it need a creator, and, if so, does he have any other effect on the universe? And who created him?

... if we do discover a complete theory, it should in time be understandable in broad principle by everyone, not just a few scientists. Then we shall all, philosophers, scientists, and just ordinary people, be able to take part in the discussion of the question of why it is that we and the universe exist. If we find the answer to that, it would be the ultimate triumph of human reason - for then we would know the mind of God.

Quoted from Brief History of Time

Bible is a Dangerous Moral Guide

When there is no evidence to prove God....
How can we believe the bible to be his word??
Even if its proved there's a an imaginary friend visible to only psychopaths...
We can't support claim to prove Bible's honesty!!

The precepts, the teachings, and the worse form of science, and those philosophy which cannot be accepted by the 20th century man are inherent character of the bible..

The truth about quoting lines from God's speech is a simple myth by Jewish and Christian priests.. That bible is a human Creation can be proved by the data following..

  • Honesty
Truth is what we expect from such a holy book as Bible..
but as i assumed earlier that deception is what it has in store for us..

In Jeremiah, chap-20, verse 7, the writer complains....
"O god thou hast deceived me".
In chap-4, verse 10, Jeremiah has charged God with deception. He says...
"Ah, Lord God, surely thou hast deceived the people of Jerusalem".

In the chap-22 of 1st king. It's said,
"And the Lord said we shall persuade Ahab through a lying spirit.
Behold the lord hath put a lying spirit in the mouth of prophets".

The story of "the great flood" is full of falsity and improper data.
In chap-7 of Genesis it's said,
"It rained for forty days and forty nights.
It rained 15 cubits high and the mountains were covered".

A cubit being 1 foot and 6 inches, the flood was 22 and a half ft. deep.
Mt. Everest and Mt. Arafat are 29,000 and 17,260 ft. respectively.
What a shame is to say that God-inspired Bible is utterly wrong!!
Would a rational being in search of truth believe that, Dinosaurs, Giant mammoths, or simply the Elephant could squeeze through a 18 sq. inches of a window or door as people like to say.

Was it not important for aquatic animals to be killed??
Or the animals and human-beings on a high altitude settlement??

Now let's take a look unto the book, spotless for falsehood..
In chap-3 of Romans, St. Paul says..
"For if the truth of God hath more abounded through my lie unto his glory".

According to St. Paul, falsity may be required in the service to the holy spirit..
and it's nothing wrong with it!!
But Humane Moral Conduct lies in truthfulness..

Helped By Begone Godmen By A. Kovoor

On Against the fool-hardy idea

First of all let us take a look at the world..
Then at the planets and satellites of our solar system..
And then at the galaxies and the quasars..

Looking out at all the directions, the astronomer sees countless stars and planets as our own system..

And estimations show that there are more than 10^21
things just like our solar system..

An inconceivable number... scattered at an inconceivable distance..
from us..

Since every thing is in very far away... We can perceive the billion years old light coming from this places..

he observable universe has a radius of 1 billion light years.. This is not at all the entire universe.. but as much as we can perceive... so in that way universe is way bigger than our thought...

Within the observable universe, estimation is 10^8 galaxies.. some are bigger then milky way..

There are at least 10^6 planetary systems in milky way alone..

With the idea of perfect environmental factors for initialization of life..
There is many more earth-like planets in the universe..
Why this minute speck of dust which we call earth is prime selection of God..

Since the scientists have precisely and accurately measured the age of earth which is circa 4.5 billion BC, in comparison to this, biblical error of creation is 5975 BC, we can see that its completely non-sense and less then 2 millionth of the real age of our earth..

Why should the almighty god would gift life only into this planet??
only for partiality.. !! ??
Why not any other planet??

Why has benevolent god let mankind to take over all his creation on this world??
Why his majesty is accountable for the evil thoughts in our brain??

Look at the deadly fangs of a young cobra!!
You will find earth is no lesser hell...
While u look at the serenity of the Himalayas!!
earth is no lesser heaven..